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B.A. Biology with Chemistry minor, North Adams State College, North Adams, MA (currently known as Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts).

M.Sc. Entomology and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware. 

Ph.D. Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB Canada. 

Select Publications

Rasmussen, J. L., S. G. Sealy, and T. J. Underwood.  2009.  Video recording reveals the method of ejection of Brown-Headed Cowbird Eggs and no cost in American Robins and Gray Catbirds.  Condor 111:570-574.

Underwood, T. J., and S. G. Sealy. 2008. UV reflectance of eggs of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and accepter and rejecter hosts. Journal of Ornithology 149:313-321.

Underwood, T. J., and S. G. Sealy. 2006a. Grasp-ejection in two small cowbird egg ejecters: a test of the bill-size constraints assumption of the evolutionary equilibrium hypothesis. Animal Behaviour 71:409-416.

Underwood, T. J., and S. G. Sealy. 2006b. Influence of egg shape on cowbird egg discrimination in American Robins and Gray Catbirds. Ethology 112:164-173.

Underwood, T. J., and S. G. Sealy. 2006c. Parameters of Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater egg recognition and ejection in Warbling Vireos Vireo gilvus. Journal of Avian Biology 37:457-466.

McLaren, C. M., T. J. Underwood, and S. G. Sealy. 2006. Conflicting temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of cowbird parasitism on four common hosts in Ontario over 130 years. Condor 108:238-242.

Murphy-Klassen, H. M., T. J. Underwood, S. G. Sealy, and A. A. Czyrnyj. 2005. Long-term trends in spring arrival dates of migrant birds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba, in relation to climate change. Auk 122:1130-1148.

Hinam, H. L., S. G. Sealy, and T. J. Underwood. 2004. Hummingbird entanglements in burdock (Arctium spp.) at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Canadian Field-Naturalist 118:85-89.

Underwood, T. J., S. G. Sealy, and C. M. McLaren. 2004. Experiments on egg discrimination in two North American corvids:  further evidence for retention of egg ejection. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1399-1407.

Underwood, T. J., S. G. Sealy, and C. M. McLaren. 2004. Eastern Wood-Pewees as cowbird hosts:  accepters but infrequently parasitized. Journal of Field Ornithology 75:165-171.

Sealy, S. G., and T. J. Underwood. 2004.  Rejecters and accepters of cowbird parasitism among the New World orioles (Icterus spp.). Ornitologia Neotropical 15:331-347.

Underwood, T. J., and S. G. Sealy. 2002. Adaptive significance of egg coloration, Chapter 19. Pages 280-298 In Avian Incubation: Behaviour, Environment and Evolution, D. C. Deeming, ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Underwood, T. J., and R. R. Roth. 2002. Demographic variables are poor indicators of Wood Thrush productivity. Condor 104:92-102.