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GEG 020 - Elements of Cultural Geography - Fall 2005


Sections 011, 030, 040, 050




Assignment 3


(due Week 14)






This assignment corresponds to "Assignment 3" in your course syllabus.

You are asked to read Chapters 10, 11, and 12 in your text.

The topics covered pertain to "Economic Geography", with a discussion of "Agriculture", "Industry", and "Services".


After reading each chapter, please answer the following questions,

using a regular SCANTRON FORM that you will hand in on the due date.

There are 60 questions in total.





Questions on Chapter 10


1. The most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural regions is

A. whether the product is consumed on or off the farm.

B. whether crops are grown or animals are raised.

C. the location of the first agriculture.

D. the population density of the crop-producing region.


2. Which statement correctly describes hunting and gathering?

A. All humans obtained their food this way before the invention of agriculture.

B. It is a form of nomadism.

C. This form of agriculture is still practiced.

D. all of the above


3. Hunting and gathering societies

A. employ about 15 percent of the world's people.

B. are found in isolated places in the world.

C. are characterized by large concentrations of people.

D. occur nearly everywhere but are especially common in Europe.


4. An important agricultural hearth is

A. Southeast Asia.

B. South America.

C. Ethiopia.

D. all of the above


5. Which is not a form of subsistence agriculture?

A. Mediterranean

B. shifting cultivation

C. pastoral nomadism

D. All of the above are forms of subsistence agriculture.


6. Which type of agriculture is found primarily in less developed countries?

A. Mediterranean

B. plantation

C. truck farming

D. none of the above


7. Which type of agriculture occupies the largest percentage of the world's land area?

A. dairying

B. intensive subsistence

C. plantation

D. shifting cultivation


8. Which type of agriculture is practiced by the largest percentage of the world's people?

A. hunting and gathering

B. intensive subsistence

C. pastoral nomadism

D. shifting cultivation


9. Pastoral nomadism is most commonly found in which climate region?

A. humid low-latitude

B. dry

C. warm mid-latitude

D. cold mid-latitude


10. Pastoral nomads are distinguished from other forms of subsistence farmers by all but which of the following?

A. They consume animals rather than grain.

B. They obtain grain through trade.

C. They occupy dry lands.

D. All of the above distinguish pastoral nomadism.


11. The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures is

A. pastoral nomadism.

B. shifting cultivation.

C. transhumance.

D. all of the above


12. Commercial agriculture is distinguished from subsistence agriculture by all but which of the following?

A. low percentage of farmers in the labor force

B. farm size

C. heavy use of machinery

D. output consumed on the farm


13. The relatively large size of the average North American farm results in all but which of the following?

A. Most farms are owned by large corporations.

B. Mechanization is necessary.

C. Farming is expensive.

D. All of the above are true.


14. In the United States many farms are integrated into a large food production industry. This is known as

A. agribusiness.

B. commercial farming.

C. food processing.

D. mechanized farming.


15. According to von Thünen's model, a commercial farmer is concerned with which of these costs?

A. price of land

B. cost of transporting output to market

C. value of yield per hectare

D. All of the above are considered.


16. In general, the farther a dairy farm is from a large urban area the lower the percentage of output devoted to fresh milk. This occurs primarily because

A. land costs are lower farther from the urban area.

B. milk is more perishable than butter.

C. transport costs are greater farther from the urban area.

D. the quality of soil is lower near an urban area.


17. Less developed countries generate funds to promote development through

A. bartering with urban residents.

B. encouraging traditional subsistence agriculture.

C. feeding the rapidly growing population.

D. selling export crops.


18. (T/F) Subsistence agriculture is designed mainly to generate products for sale off the farm.


19. (T/F) Shifting cultivation can support large population concentrations in East and South Asia.


20. (T/F) Intensive subsistence agriculture involves large amounts of efforts used to produce the maximum feasible yield from a given piece of land.


Questions on Chapter 11


21. Approximately three-fourths of the world's industrial production is concentrated in four regions. Which of the following is not one of these four regions?

A. eastern North America

B. eastern Europe

C. eastern Russia

D. Japan


22. The Industrial Revolution began in

A. Great Britain.

B. Japan.

C. the Soviet Union.

D. the United States.


23. The first industries to increase production through extensive use of the steam engine were

A. iron and chemical.

B. mining and textile.

C. textile and iron.

D. transport and steel.


24. The Industrial Revolution in Europe diffused

A. from east to west.

B. from west to east.

C. from north to south.

D. from south to north.


25. The growth of manufacturing was retarded in the United States during the nineteenth century primarily because of

A. abundant raw materials.

B. distance from markets.

C. labor surpluses.

D. all of the above


26. Eastern North America is the continent's manufacturing center in part because it has access to the continent's

A. largest markets.

B. most extensive sources of essential raw materials.

C. best-maintained transportation systems.

D. all of the above


27. Today, New England's most significant industrial asset is its

A. access to the nation's transportation network.

B. large market area.

C. proximity to essential raw materials.

D. skilled labor force.


28. Today, the most significant industrial asset of the Western Great Lakes region is its

A. access to the nation's transportation network.

B. large market area.

C. proximity to essential raw materials.

D. skilled labor force.


29. A copper concentration mill tends to locate near a copper mine because it is a

A. bulk-reducing industry.

B. perishable industry.

C. site factor.

D. specialized manufacturer.


30. Situation costs are critical to a firm which wishes to

A. avoid labor unions.

B. minimize production costs inside the plant.

C. minimize transport costs.

D. identify unique characteristics of a particular location


31. The location of a maquiladora plant is a good example of the importance of

A. situation factors.

B. site factors.

C. Post-Fordist production.

D. break-of-bulk points.


32. The lowest-cost form of transporting goods very long distances is

A. truck.

B. train.

C. boat.

D. airplane.


33. Beer bottling is an example of a

A. perishable industry.

B. specialized industry.

C. bulk-gaining industry.

D. communications-oriented industry.


34. Compared to other industries, aluminum manufacturers are more likely to locate near sources of

A. low-cost labor.

B. low-cost land.

C. low-cost energy.

D. aluminum oxide.


35. Which of these industries is most dependent on low-cost labor?

A. automotive

B. electronics

C. steel

D. textile


36. Industrial areas outside North America and Europe have become increasingly important in recent years primarily because of

A. access to markets.

B. access to raw materials.

C. break-of-bulk points.

D. site factors.


37. The biggest industrial challenge for more developed countries is

A. lack of access to markets.

B. lack of raw materials.

C. unequal distribution of industry.

D. unmet consumer demand.


38. The biggest industrial challenge for less developed countries is

A. lack of access to markets.

B. lack of raw materials.

C. unequal distribution of industry.

D. unmet consumer demand.


39. Transnational corporations have transferred some work to less developed countries because of access to

A. government subsidies.

B. labor.

C. markets.

D. raw materials.


40. In contrast to Fordist production, Post-Fordist production is more likely to

A. introduce more flexible work rules.

B. place more importance on site factors.

C. assign each worker one task.

D. dominate transnational corporations.


41. The main impact of the growth of regional trading blocs is

A. increased cooperation among countries within trading blocs.

B. increased cooperation between trading blocs.

C. increased competition among countries within trading blocs.

D. all of the above


42. The new international division of labor reflects the growing importance for industrial location of

A. site factors.

B. situation factors.

C. access to raw materials.

D. new infrastructure.


Questions for Chapter 12


43. Rural settlements differ from urban settlements primarily according to which type of activity?

A. cultural

B. economic

C. political

D. religious


44. A place where farm buildings, homes, and churches are found close together is what kind of settlement?

A. urban

B. linear

C. dispersed rural

D. clustered rural


45. Most people in the world live in what type of settlement?

A. clustered rural

B. dispersed rural

C. urban settlement

D. metropolitan area


46. The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered is the

A. central business district.

B. central city.

C. urbanized area.

D. metropolitan statistical area.


47. Banking is an example of what kind of service?

A. producer

B. retail

C. personal

D. public


48. Producer services provide what kind of services?

A. diffusion and distribution of services

B. services to businesses

C. services for the wellbeing of individuals

D. security and protection


49. Because so few people live in the CBD, urban areas are characterized by a high degree of

A. blockbusting.

B. commuting.

C. threshold.

D. skyscrapers.


50. The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted is the

A. hinterland.

B. range.

C. threshold.

D. median.


51. The geometric pattern which geographers use to represent market areas is

A. a circle.

B. a hexagon.

C. a square.

D. an irregularly shaped circle.


52. If a country follows the rank-size rule, if the largest city has 1,000,000 inhabitants, how many people live in the fifth largest city?

A. 50,000

B. 200,000

C. 500,000

D. 5,000,000


53. A primate city is

A. a city with political, economic, and cultural functions.

B. at least twice as large as the next smaller city.

C. the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese.

D. a rapidly growing city.


54. A central place is a

A. hinterland.

B. market center.

C. range of a good.

D. rank-size distribution.


55. The hierarchical organization of settlements by size is known as the

A. primate city.

B. economic base.

C. gravity model.

D. rank-size rule.


56. One of the most important basic activities in the southern Great Lakes region is

A. manufacturing of durable goods.

B. manufacturing of textiles.

C. entertainment and recreation facilities.

D. government and education.


57. Producer services cluster in disproportionately large numbers in

A. world cities.

B. regional command and control centers.

C. specialized producer-service centers.

D. dependent centers.


58. There are four levels of cities in the hierarchy of world cities based on their roles in global services. Which pair contains a type that is not included in this model?

A. specialized producer-service centers; dependent centers

B. secondary world cities; dependent centers

C. world cities; regional command and control centers

D. specialized producer-service centers; industrial producers


59. (T/F) None of the world's ten most populous urban areas is located in Europe.


60. (T/F) Cities grew rapidly in Europe immediately after the collapse of the Roman Empire.







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